Association of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) with diabetic retinopathy (DR) among patients with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes

This was a retrospective cohort study using the global patient database of TriNetX Research Network. Two cohorts of 39,680 patients each covering diagnoses from January 1, 2005, to January 1, 2023 were selected from 44,359 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with POAG and 4,393,300 DM patients without any glaucoma. The cohorts were matched using propensity score matching, adjusting for age, sex, race/ ethnicity, blood markers, relevant medical history, and ophthalmic service utilization.  At 10 years, the risk of developing DR in T1 and T2 diabetes patients was found to be significantly higher among POAG patients (5.45%) compared to those without glaucoma (2.12%). The cumulative incidence of DR was also significantly higher in the POAG group compared to non-glaucoma counterparts after a decade. The findings underscore a substantial association between POAG and DR development in both T1 and T2 diabetes patients, emphasizing the need for vigilant screening and comprehensive management in glaucomatous patients with diabetes mellitus to mitigate the risk of DR. Future research should delve into elucidating the causal mechanisms driving these observed associations

Source: MZ Chauhan, et al, Ophthalmology. 2024 Jan 10:S0161-6420(24)00052-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2024.01.016